Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Technical Writing Definition and Observations

Technical writing is a specialized form of exposition: that is, written communication done on the job, especially in fields with specialized vocabularies, such as science, engineering, technology, and the health sciences. Along with business writing, technical writing is often subsumed under the heading of professional communication. About Technical Writing The Society for Technical Communication (STC) offers this definition of technical writing: the process of gathering information from experts and presenting it to an audience in a clear, easily understandable form. It can take the form of writing an instruction manual for software users or detailed specifications for an engineering project—and myriad other types of writing in technical, medicine, and science fields. In an influential article published in 1965, Webster Earl Britton concluded that the essential characteristic of technical writing is the effort of the author to convey one meaning and only one meaning in what he says. Characteristics of Technical Writing Here are its main characteristics: Purpose:  Getting something done within an organization (completing a project, persuading a customer, pleasing your boss, etc.)Your knowledge of the topic:  Usually greater than that of the readerAudience:  Often several people, with differing technical backgroundsCriteria for evaluation:  Clear and simple organization of ideas, in a format that meets the needs of busy readersStatistical and graphic support:  Frequently used to explain existing conditions and to present alternative courses of action   Differences Between Tech and Other Types of Writing   The Handbook of Technical Writing describes the crafts goal this way: The goal of  technical writing  is to enable readers to use a technology or understand a process or concept. Because the subject matter is more important than the writers  voice, technical writing  style  uses an objective, not a subjective,  tone. The writing style is direct and utilitarian, emphasizing exactness and  clarity  rather than elegance or allusiveness. A technical writer uses  figurative language  only when a  figure of speech  would facilitate understanding. Mike Markel notes in Technical Communication, The biggest difference between technical communication and the other kinds of writing you have done is that technical communication has a somewhat different focus on  audience  and  purpose. In Technical Writing, Presentational Skills, and Online Communication, computer science professor Raymond Greenlaw notes that the writing style in  technical writing is  more prescriptive than in creative writing. In technical writing, we are not so much concerned about entertaining the audience as we are about conveying specific information to our readers in a concise and precise manner. Careers Study People can study technical writing in college or technical school, though a student doesnt have to earn a full degree in the field for the skill to be useful in his or her job. Employees in technical fields who have good communication skills can learn on the job through feedback from their team members as they work on projects, supplementing their work experience through taking occasional targeted courses to further develop their skills. Knowledge of the field and its specialized vocabulary is the most important piece for technical writers, just as in other niche writing areas, and can command a paid premium over generalist writers. Sources Gerald J. Alred, et al., Handbook of Technical Writing. Bedford/St. Martins, 2006.Mike Markel, Technical Communication. 9th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2010.William Sanborn Pfeiffer, Technical Writing: A Practical Approach. Prentice-Hall, 2003.

Technical Writing Definition and Observations

Technical writing is a specialized form of exposition: that is, written communication done on the job, especially in fields with specialized vocabularies, such as science, engineering, technology, and the health sciences. Along with business writing, technical writing is often subsumed under the heading of professional communication. About Technical Writing The Society for Technical Communication (STC) offers this definition of technical writing: the process of gathering information from experts and presenting it to an audience in a clear, easily understandable form. It can take the form of writing an instruction manual for software users or detailed specifications for an engineering project—and myriad other types of writing in technical, medicine, and science fields. In an influential article published in 1965, Webster Earl Britton concluded that the essential characteristic of technical writing is the effort of the author to convey one meaning and only one meaning in what he says. Characteristics of Technical Writing Here are its main characteristics: Purpose:  Getting something done within an organization (completing a project, persuading a customer, pleasing your boss, etc.)Your knowledge of the topic:  Usually greater than that of the readerAudience:  Often several people, with differing technical backgroundsCriteria for evaluation:  Clear and simple organization of ideas, in a format that meets the needs of busy readersStatistical and graphic support:  Frequently used to explain existing conditions and to present alternative courses of action   Differences Between Tech and Other Types of Writing   The Handbook of Technical Writing describes the crafts goal this way: The goal of  technical writing  is to enable readers to use a technology or understand a process or concept. Because the subject matter is more important than the writers  voice, technical writing  style  uses an objective, not a subjective,  tone. The writing style is direct and utilitarian, emphasizing exactness and  clarity  rather than elegance or allusiveness. A technical writer uses  figurative language  only when a  figure of speech  would facilitate understanding. Mike Markel notes in Technical Communication, The biggest difference between technical communication and the other kinds of writing you have done is that technical communication has a somewhat different focus on  audience  and  purpose. In Technical Writing, Presentational Skills, and Online Communication, computer science professor Raymond Greenlaw notes that the writing style in  technical writing is  more prescriptive than in creative writing. In technical writing, we are not so much concerned about entertaining the audience as we are about conveying specific information to our readers in a concise and precise manner. Careers Study People can study technical writing in college or technical school, though a student doesnt have to earn a full degree in the field for the skill to be useful in his or her job. Employees in technical fields who have good communication skills can learn on the job through feedback from their team members as they work on projects, supplementing their work experience through taking occasional targeted courses to further develop their skills. Knowledge of the field and its specialized vocabulary is the most important piece for technical writers, just as in other niche writing areas, and can command a paid premium over generalist writers. Sources Gerald J. Alred, et al., Handbook of Technical Writing. Bedford/St. Martins, 2006.Mike Markel, Technical Communication. 9th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2010.William Sanborn Pfeiffer, Technical Writing: A Practical Approach. Prentice-Hall, 2003.

Monday, May 18, 2020

What Is Worship And What It Is Not - 2235 Words

What Worship Is And What It Is Not. What is the true meaning of worshipping God? Is it intense emotional outpouring of an individual? Is it smoke, lights, and loud music reminiscent of some sort of sanctified bar room? Does it require music or sound at all? What exactly is required of an individual who wishes to glorify his Creator and Redeemer? These are the questions that will be discussed in this paper. What is worship? It can be defined as many things from solitude and prayer with God; It may involve music to some, in an effort to draw one closer into the presence of the Almighty. The best definition of worship is this: it is an end unto itself; it is not a means unto something else. When we try to worship for the sake of certain benefits that may be received, the act ceases to be worship; for then it attempts to use God as a means to something else. (Segler 5) It may be nigh unto impossible to pinpoint a single form of worship that is applicable to everyone, but a single concept must be present for all believers. This is the concept of surrender and obedience to God. It is the humbleness to something greater than oneself. It the realization that man is nothing but sand on the seashore, while God is an endless sea. Mankind is finite; he is only given a few years, while God is the Ancient of Days. Whether this humble surrender is in the silence of solitude or in the presence of other believers, it is foolish to speculate. Worship is to quicken the conscience to theShow MoreRelatedWhat Makes Celebrity Worship?1488 Words   |  6 Pagescan’t stop following a celebrity or can’t tell the difference between following a celebrity or hero might have celebrity worship syndrome. This is a real psychological disorder of the brain. According to Sensagent Online Dictionary, Celebrity worship syndrome is â€Å"an Obsessive-Addictive disorder where a person becomes overly involved in a celebrities personal life.† Celebrity worship syndrome is a very serious problem that people need to start addressing and it is due to the celebrities who give a badRead MoreTrace the Development and Change in the Place of Worship Where the Children of Abraham and Israel Worshiped. What Is the Origin of the Synagogue?1595 Words   |  7 PagesSo we can say that the beginning of worship started first with sacrifice Since the sacrifice is practice of worship. which we can see in the Genesis 4:3-4(And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering). Another sacrificial worship we find that Noah making sacrifice and God is pleased in it in GenesisRead MoreAnalysis Of Paul Basden s A Congenial Way 1500 Words   |  6 PagesPaul Basden begins his conversation on worship by seeking to define its meaning. However, the reader will learn quickly that this task is easier said than done. Basden examines worship through theological, biblical, and historical facets and ultimately determines that â€Å"Worship has never been practiced in all places by all people in one way (18). In order to discuss the various types of worship in a congenial way, Basden introduces six authors that are charged with defending and critique each other’sRead MoreThe Spirit Of Christmas By Charles Dickens1498 Words   |  6 PagesNovember 30, 2014 INTRODUCTION Play intro video during offering — â€Å"Christmas Spirit (The Right Way)† (Show series slide.) Today we begin a Christmas teaching series called â€Å"The Spirit of Christmas.† What do you think the â€Å"Spirit of Christmas† is? (Allow responses) Perhaps it might be best to begin with what the Spirit of Christmas is not: Fully-loaded eggnog or other drinkable â€Å"spirits† The ghost of Christmases past, present and future as portrayed by Charles Dickens Chestnuts roasting on an open fireRead MoreThe Spiritual Discipline Of Worship1186 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The spiritual discipline that I have chosen is worship. When I think of the term ‘worship’ my initial response is singing to God but throughout this course I have learnt that although singing is one important aspect of worship, that it is so much more than just that. Worship is to â€Å"honour and adore the Trinity as the supreme treasure of life.† Worship is offering your whole self to God. Worship is a choice and a way of life. Summarise your original understanding of the disciplineRead MoreWorship Is Our Response By The Things We Live1329 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Worship is†¦ our response, both personal and corporate, to God – for who He is! And what He has done! Expressed in and by the things we say and the way we live.† There are many definitions of worship out there. I have found that this one seems to best fit my heart when praying through the topic of worship. Worship is something that begins in the heart, privately, and then flows out during times of public and corporate gathering. Worship however, is something far deeper than music, dance, art, orRead MoreThe Gospel Centeredness Of Worship1173 Words   |  5 Pages Gospel-centeredness in worship is all about how the Bible points to us in the direction of grace. As people of God, we can become so focused on gospel-centeredness that we forget about the reason to be gospel-centered and that is the cross. The imperative for the centrality of the cross in all church worship gatherings originated and was brought into focus at the cross of our Lord and savior Jesus Christ. Glorying Jesus Christ means glorying in what he did at the cross. It does not justRead MoreGod s Speech On God Essay996 Words   |  4 Pagesunderstand rational truths with our mind and know what to believe. He teaches us how to Worship by painting a picture of the world through his eyes. He teaches us about ourselves, eternity, why we are here on Earth, and how to know right from wrong so we can Worship the greatness that is him. God has given us many commands like in Matthew 22: 37-39 to follow but we should take the teaching and understand the relationship that is presented between us and the Worship of him. God wants us to experience him andRead MoreWhat Does The Bible Mean?1553 Words   |  7 PagesOur worship, our clapping real hard, and even our believing in God does not make Him more or less of who He is. So what is worsh ip then? Is it music? Singing songs to a divine being? Is it taking part in the sacraments of the Christian church? Why are there numerous disputes or differences of opinions about â€Å"how† to worship? The word worship itself is labeled as a noun and is defined as the feeling or expression of reverence and adoration for a deity. But if a biblical definition of worship is toRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Great Commission 1735 Words   |  7 Pages4MAT Book Review - The Great Commission to Worship Todd Bush Liberty University EVAN 525-B08: Contemporary Evangelism May 29, 2016 Abstract The question may be asked, â€Å"what is the essence of being a Great Commission Worshipper?† David Wheeler and Vernon Whaley provides subtle element of what the significance is to being a Great Commission Worshipper – a man absolutely and similarly dedicated to evangelism and worship – and an otherworldly procedure that is formational, transformational

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Study Habits - 1368 Words

. College students, especially freshmen, are a group particularly prone to stress (DZurilla Sheedy, 1991) due to the transitional nature of college life (Towbes Cohen, 1996). They must adjust to being away from home for the first time, maintain a high level of academic achievement, and adjust to a new social environment. College students, regardless of year in school, often deal with pressures related to finding a job or a potential life partner. These stressors do not cause anxiety or tension by themselves. Instead, stress results from the interaction between stressors and the individuals perception and reaction to those stressors (Romano, 1992). The amount of stress experienced may be influenced by the individuals ability to†¦show more content†¦According to the universitys study, many times tutors and others can feed into the students weaknesses by not assessing the overall issues with learning. Oftentimes, these people take too much responsibility from the student, particularly with things like essay writing. In terms of a solution, Oxford found that by avoiding a segmented approach at teaching proper study methods, better results were achieved. Essentially, college freshmen have a responsibility to use less of the assets that help in guidance for fixing study problems and simply take greater accountability for their actions. It is up to the student to find the best study solutions that work for them, rather than rely on the efforts of others. The best study solution that can be recommended is to create a process of learning that works for the individual. Avoiding distractions and allowing themselves proper down time can create better studying standards over time. Once the student finds a program that works for them, they usually find that their study problems go away Going to college and living in a dorm is a living and learning experience. It’s probably the only time in your life that you will ever be living with a community of people with the same interests, goals, and, not to mention, fears. You should always understand that sharing a floor couldShow MoreRelatedStudy Habits854 Words   |  4 Pageslevel of students in school becomes higher, their study habits differ from time to time. The kind of study habits they have shows the differences or improvements in how they become skilled and earnest about learning new things. Studying does not only include the preparation of students to excel in class but also the reinforcements of the lessons already taught. It is merely reviewing and committing to mind new information. Furthermore, study habits can be derived as buying out a dedicated scheduledRead MoreStudy Habits1391 Words   |  6 PagesChapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE amp; STUDIES According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be cramped. They presupposes that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backedRead MoreStudy Habits6353 Words   |  26 PagesSTUDY HABITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF SANTA ROSA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE SCHOOL YEAR 2011-2012 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Rosa Campus In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree Master in Educational Management By JESUSA G. HABIG August 2011 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Effective study skills are necessary for a high school studentRead MoreStudy Habits Introduction1844 Words   |  8 Pageswatching others, you have to practice and practice frequently. Successful students employ time management systems to create study patterns that work and use active learning methods to add meaning and interest to their study time and maintaining their motivation by connecting reasons for study to their life goals and values. Learners must develop and established good study habits in doing school work, which can raised their academic performance. High educational achievement attained by the learnersRead MoreStudy Habits Introduction1853 Words   |  8 Pageswatching others, you have to practice and practice frequently. Successful students employ time management systems to create study patterns that work and use active learning methods to add meaning and interest to their study time and maintaining their motivation by connecting reasons for study to their life goals and values. Learners must develop and established good study habits in doing school work, which can raised their academic performance. High educational achievement attained by the learners inRead MoreChapter 2 Study Habits2145 Words   |  9 PagesChapter II Related Literature and Related Studies This research study cited books, articles and laws, which are relevant to the  present investigation.  It is composed of related literature and studies, both local andforeign, which contain facts and information on the research problem at hand.  It also  provides  explanations  and  logical  connections  between  previous  researches  and  the  present work. Foreign Literature In Dorothy E. Jhonson’s Behavioral System Model, she stated that a behavioral systemRead MoreStudy Habits of Accounting Students4380 Words   |  18 PagesBSA, because of the job opportunities awaits them when they become a CPA. Accounting students in UE Caloocan are trained. They have a good faculty to guide them, they provide seminars, and they provide reviews before the exams. Background of the Study For others, when they hear that you’re an Accountancy student, it means that you are intelligent and good at solving problems, but it’s not easy to be an accountant student. Many BSA students failed and shifted to other courses because of the retentionRead MoreFactors Affecting Study Habits4632 Words   |  19 Pages3, 2006; Accepted April 14, 2006. Other Sectionsââ€" ¼ Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluateRead MoreStudy Habits and the Academic Performance of the Pupils.7856 Words   |  32 Pagespersonal matter and there isn’t one study habit that works for every situation. One here to take more responsibility to acquire the desired knowledge to develop positive values, critical thinking, attitudes and skills. Effective study skills and strategies opportunities to approach learning tasks systematically and independently. Practicing good study habits is the key to becoming smarter and achieving success in school. Paivio (2000) noted that habits of study, which are formed in school haveRead MoreThe Effects of Study Habits on Academic Performance....2248 Words   |  9 PagesOzamiz City, 7200 â€Å"THE EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECOND YEAR ACCOUNTANCY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN SUMMER IN LA SALLE UNIVERSITY, OZAMIZ CITY, SCHOOL YEAR 2010† A research proposal Presented to: Mr. Raymundo Dolor, CPA, MBA, LLB In Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Subject ACTW By Emphasis, Hazel G. Zamoras, Jaykie Luzette ABSTRACT This study identifies whether study habits bring positive or negative effects to the academic

Accounting - Statistics and Information System Complexity Associated

Question: Discuss about the Accounting, Statistics and Information System for Complexity Associated. Answer: Problem Statement: The research proposes to dissect the service quality of the National Australia Bank and its financial performance over the past three-year period. It has been observed that the banks mostly encounter issues for their system modification in order to enhance the quality of services (Allred and Addams 2013). Due to the growing advancements in the banking technology of Australia, the banks are perplexed with certain complexities to evaluate the customer perceptions for service quality modification. Due to this, the financial performances of the banks have been fluctuating to maintain the competitive supremacy in the target market. Moreover, another complexity associated with the research is the examination of the relationship between services rendered and level of customer satisfaction. This is because the services provided on the part of the banks are primarily intangible in nature. In this regard, Bansal and Taylor (2015) stated that the banks are facing difficulties to evaluate the consumer perceptions relating to service quality due to intangible services. Hence, the effect of the service quality on the financial performance of National Australia Bank is another part of the research problem statement. Assumptions, Theories and Background Literature: As commented by Cheng (2014), the customers need to incur both money and resources, which mainly arise in the shape of efforts and energy. Henceforth, the major focus of the Australian banking industry is to develop the quality of services to ensure high level of customer satisfaction for enjoying competitive edge in the market. Therefore, the customer satisfaction and service quality model is the most feasible alternative for literature construction. Figure 1: Customer satisfaction and service quality model (Source: Chu, Lee and Chao 2012) According to the above figure, the personal needs and the words of mouth have direct effects on the customer perception level. The customer expectations are gauged by distinguishing the standard of services with the normal price and service delivery (Dabholkar 2015). If the customers feel satisfied with the service delivery, the repurchase decisions will be increased along with ensuring stable financial performance. On the contrary, ineffective services might lead to high customer turnover for the banks (Dabholkar 2015), which would degrade the financial performance of the same. Variables and Hypotheses: The research hypotheses are needed to be presumed for dissecting the service quality of National Australia Bank and the impact of the service quality on the financial performance. Based on these assumptions, the hypotheses for the research are stated as follows: Null Hypothesis, H0a: National Australia Bank does not provide effective services to the customers Null Hypothesis, H0b: Service quality of National Australia Bank has negative impact on its financial performance Alternative Hypothesis, H1a: National Australia Bank provides effective services to the customers Alternative Hypothesis, H1b: Service quality of National Australia Bank has positive impact on its financial performance Operational measurement and definitions: In the words of Soteriou and Stavrinides (2013), the service quality of an organisation could be gauged by the employee assurance, reliability, tangibility, and empathy. In order to simplify the research, the researcher will focus on the service quality for customer satisfaction level and impact of the same on the financial performance of the bank. The researcher will consider all the above-mentioned determinants to perform quantitative and secondary analysis. However, the scope of the research will be limited in the sense that no qualitative analysis will be undertaken to gin an insight about the organisational strategies adopted for improving service quality. Research design and methodology: The research strategy that will be chosen for estimating the service quality and financial performance of National Australia Bank will be conducting survey on the bank customers and using the annual reports to determine the financial viability. As commented by Panneerselvam (2014), the survey helps the researcher to gather primary information about the service quality of an organisation. The secondary data analysis, on the other hand, will help the researcher to know about the financial performance of National Australia Bank based on the service quality. Hence, the researcher will follow the descriptive research design to evaluate the characteristics of the bank services and its financial performance. In addition, the researcher will maintain the confidentiality of the participants for maintaining the ethical integrity of the research. Instrumentation/Sampling: The researcher will select 73 customers availing the bank services in Australia. By seeking the responses obtained from the customers, the researcher will be able to evaluate the quality of services being rendered by National Australia Bank. Therefore, the use of probability sampling in the form of simple random sampling will be chosen to survey the selected respondents. This is because probability sampling fetches equal opportunities to the participants of being selected in the process of survey (Flick 2015). Data Analysis: The excel application will be used to quantify the human responses obtained into meaningful tables and graphs. The responses obtained will be supported by statistical techniques like measures of dispersion, central tendency and regression analysis. The secondary data will also be evaluated with the excel tool by applying relevant formulas. Therefore, the combination of both primary and secondary data will help the researcher to develop appropriate inferences based on the research study. Conclusions, Interpretations and Recommendations: The initial hypothesis will be accepted or rejected based on the computation of the data received in terms of both primary and secondary data. If the customers feel satisfied with the quality of services of National Australia Bank, it would reflect in its financial statements and vice-versa. In the first case, the alternative hypothesis will be satisfied and in the latter case, the null hypothesis will be accepted. Based on the theoretical or literature framework, it has been vivisected that the service quality has direct effects on customer satisfaction and the financial performance of the bank. The service quality could be improved by adopting innovative approaches like designing training programs to empower the staffs, implementing financial technologies and segmentation of the client base. The qualitative analysis could be useful to improve the quality of the research further in future. This is because by interviewing the managers of National Australia Bank, the researcher will be able to know about the bank policies to improve its service quality for better customer satisfaction. References and Bibliographies: Allred, A.T. and Addams, H.L., 2013. Service quality at banks and credit unions: what do their customers say?.International Journal of Bank Marketing. Bansal, H.S. and Taylor, S., 2015. Investigating the relationship between service quality, satisfaction and switching intentions. InProceedings of the 1997 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 304-313). Springer International Publishing. Cheng, Y.T., 2014. A Study of Relationships among Internal Service Quality, Relationship Quality and Organizational: The Case of F Bank. Chu, P.Y., Lee, G.Y. and Chao, Y., 2012. Service quality, customer satisfaction, customer trust, and loyalty in an e-banking context.Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal,40(8), pp.1271-1283. Dabholkar, P.A., 2015. How to improve perceived service quality by increasing customer participation. InProceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 483-487). Springer International Publishing. Efron, B., 2012. Large-scale simultaneous hypothesis testing.Journal of the American Statistical Association. Flick, U., 2015.Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage. Khani, A.H. and Abbasi, H., 2015. Check the gap between customer's expectations and their perceptions of service quality (Case Study: Tabriz Meli Bank).The AYER,3, pp.439-447. Koch, K.R., 2013.Parameter estimation and hypothesis testing in linear models. Springer Science Business Media. Panneerselvam, R., 2014.Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Shanka, M.S., 2012. Bank service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty in Ethiopian banking sector.Journal of Business Administration and Management Sciences Research,1(1), pp.1-9. Soteriou, A.C. and Stavrinides, Y., 2013. An internal customer service quality data envelopment analysis model for bank branches.International Journal of Bank Marketing.

Group Leader And Teamwork In Organization - Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss about the Group Leader And Teamwork In Organization. Answer: Introduction: Team building is one of the most important aspects of organizational climate. It helps in developing not only productivity but also in work environment. The following papers will enlighten more on the topic and will give insights that are more meaningful in business culture. Annotated Bibliography: Fay, D., Shipton, H., West, M.A. and Patterson, M., 2015. Teamwork and organizational innovation: The moderating role of the HRM context.Creativity and Innovation Management,24(2), pp.261-277. In the year 2014, Fay et al. had conducted an extensive research with an aim to test the relationship between teamwork and innovation. The researchers had taken two staff groups as participants and conducted the research over three years for observation. The two staff groups taken in the organizations are production staffs and administrative staffs. This study was mainly conducted to show whether proper team formation and teamwork could affect organization innovation. UK manufactured sectors were taken in considerations and hypothesis were set up accordingly to get proper ideas about the connection between teamwork and innovation. Regression analysis was conducted which stated that more the organizations provide importance to development of teamwork, the higher the level of innovation and creativity occurs in the organization. The researchers are also of the opinion that this finding is more effective with the production team and links with the quality of the HRM systems in the organ ization. Moreover, another interesting finding which was found from the study was that the teams which were allowed time for thoughtful reflection moderated the interrelationship of teamwork and innovation at a higher level. Even present day researchers have supported the view of the paper as they had stated that positive outcomes are related with the use of teamwork as the job design. This helps in achieving of organizational goals by overcoming severe barriers and constraints by creative and innovative ideas (Ceschi, Dorofeeva and Sartori 2014). Moreover, it is stated that teamwork failure due to improper coordination and motivation loss can never act creative in fields. de Jong, B.A., Dirks, K.T. and Gillespie, N., 2015, January. Trust and team performance: a meta-analysis of main effects, contingencies, and qualifiers. InAcademy of Management Proceedings(Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 14561). Academy of Management. De Jong, Dirks as well as Gillespie conducted a meta-analysis approach in to test the relationship between team working, team performance and trust. The research conducted contained six important hypothesis. The hypotheses were set in order to understand the relationship between seven contingency factors and four qualifiers of trust and team performance relationship. From the entire analysis of the samples (8452 teams), it was found that intra-team trust is indeed sharing a positive relationship with that of that of team performance. It has been found out by the researchers that the mentioned relationship is contingent upon a number of forms for structural dependence among the team members like that of the team-virtuality, team interdependence, authority differentiation and others. The relationship also depends on performance objectivity and referent of trust. It is also found that better the team working, the better is the team performance, which remains, associated with cognitive a nd affective dimensions of trust. Researchers have taken help of this study and conducted further research about trust-teamwork relation. Their results indeed confirm that there exists a direct relationship of trust with that of teamwork and team performance. They are also of the opinion that intrateam trust has unique predictive validity on performance, which in turn accounts for team trust on team leader and past team performance. They also stated that trust effects both team efficiency and effectiveness, which contradicts previous obsolete studies suggesting efficiency but not effectiveness to be a result of team trust. However, many researchers argue that many members of the team cannot develop trust among themselves due to personal preferences. They state that they have biasness towards their colleagues for which they cannot take part in effective relationship building. Therefore, trust development among team members is not always possible (Isik and Aliyey 2015). Howard, L.W., Turban, D.B. and Hurley, S.K., 2016. Cooperating teams and competing reward strategies: Incentives for team performance and firm productivity.Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management,3(3). Howard, Turban and Hurley had conducted a research in the year 2016 where they had tried to establish the link between tea performance and productivity. However, in this regard, they have mentioned the importance of reward system to be an important association with that of the individual and collective team output. They had conducted interviews to managers and executives from about 257 organizations through mailed surveys. They wanted to disclose the inter-relationship among reward strategies, team performance, task inter-dependence and firm productivity. Four hypotheses were set and were tested by them through regression analysis. They had proved that firm productivity is related not only with personal output reward strategies but was also related to collective output reward strategies for which they believe team working to be an important part of the organization. Moreover, the second and third hypothesis proved that inter-dependence in team working moderates the relationship betwe en personal output as well as collective output rewards strategies respectively and productivity of the firms. The fourth hypothesis proved that task interdependence helps in moderation of the relationship between team performance and human capital reward strategies. This verdict in the paper has been supported where other researchers have also seen that it is indeed important to provide rewards not only on personal performance development but also on team performance development. This helps in achieving the goals of the organization, as a team rather than completing own work and leaving the floor. Moreover, they have also stated that it is important for all the members of the team to be multi-skilled. This would reduce pressure on the team. The less skilled members often are seen to cause issues under conditions of high task interdependence. Therefore, rewards indeed would help them to act as motivators and provide better productivity. However, many argue that providing rewards oft en result in financial drain of the organizations and the result of effective teamwork may not provide immediate success. Therefore, in many cases, organizations try to prevent financial rewards and incentives, which thereby cannot break the monotony of the employees (Inamizu et al. 2014). Therefore, arranging for rewards is not always successful Garca-Campayo, J., Puebla-Guedea, M., Herrera-Mercadal, P. and Daudn, E., 2016. Burnout Syndrome and Demotivation Among Health Care Personnel. Managing Stressful Situations: The Importance of Teamwork.Actas Dermo-Sifiliogrficas (English Edition),107(5), pp.400-406. Garcia Campayo et al had conducted a research in the year 2015 where they had been able to establish an important relationship between workplace stress and burnout. They had also been able to associate how ways of proper teamwork help in reducing the burnouts and help in maintaining a proper physical and emotional health of the employees. They are of the opinion that a constant state of tension and stress at workplace are the main outcomes of work situations as they often get exposed to stressful situations, tight deadlines, improper work life balance and many others. They are of the opinion that 12% of the European workers are affected by burnout syndrome and therefore, it is important to identify the demotivated and stress staff in the workplace (the research was conducted with healthcare staffs in hospitals, clinics and private practices). Hence, the researchers are of the opinions that teamwork and developing a proper work climate help in developing the stressful situations. They are of the opinion that assertive communication is one of the best ways by which teams can develop fluid, frank and direct communication and thereby reduce the chances of burning out. Other researchers have also supported the view where they had stated that besides, teamwork increasing creativity; it also produces emotional and psychological benefits (Montgomery et al. 2015). This is mainly because teamwork satisfy various individual needs for affiliation and integration in the groups enabling them greater autonomy and empowerment to fight strenuous situations. Gibert, A., Tozer, W.C. and Westoby, M., 2017. Teamwork, soft skills, and research training.Trends in ecology evolution,32(2), pp.81-84. Gibert, Tozer and Westoby had published an article in the year 2017 where they had mentioned about a list of soft skills, which are extremely important for the employees for developing proper teams. Surveys were conducted which included opinions of a number of team leaders where they stated the fact that the soft skills required for team working needs to be learnt to some extent. Cultural and diversity awareness is described by the team leaders to be highly important as it helps members to communicate effectively with diverse people and see issues from perspectives of others and show respect to others. Emotional intelligence to them is also important as that helps in creating a pleasant human environment to work for and showing empathy, humility, accountability, friendliness and unselfishness. Besides strategic thinking, empowering others, proper decision-making and conflict resolutions are some of the important skills, which are very important. Many others researches when consulted show that the soft skills are indeed helpful in maintaining unity among teams and helps in increasing team collaboration and productivity. However, many of the researchers argue that it is not possible for all the members of the employees to develop all soft skills required for effective teamwork. Therefore, effective teamwork may not take place as easily as it seems. Every employees need to be careful and try their best to develop the skills to suit the needs of the team (Orchard 2016). Cheruvelil, K.S., Soranno, P.A., Weathers, K.C., Hanson, P.C., Goring, S.J., Filstrup, C.T. and Read, E.K., 2014. Creating and maintaining high?performing collaborative research teams: the importance of diversity and interpersonal skills.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,12(1), pp.31-38. Cheruvelil et al had published a paper in the February of 2014 where importance of collaborative research teams is stated to be more impactful rather than individual research working. They are of the belief that collaborative teams should do research where members are committed to a common purpose, approach as well as performance for which every individual members should be accountable mutually. They have stated a number of factors which they think are very important for maintaining a collaborative work in business, education and also any other relatively new discipline. They are of the opinion that high performing collaborative teams effectively takes place when team diversity is fostered properly. They are also of the opinion that interpersonal skills of the team members are also important for developing high quality work output. These interpersonal skills are social sensitivity and also emotional engagement. Besides, emotional engagement, understanding and appreciation of team div ersity, emotional communication is found to be also important. Conflict management skills and time management are also important for high quality work output (Donia, ONeil and Brutus 2018). Duus, R. and Cooray, M., 2014. Together we innovate: Cross-cultural teamwork through virtual platforms.Journal of Marketing Education,36(3), pp.244-257. Duus and Curray had published their work in June 2014, where they have wonderfully explained how students of international marketing can themselves develop their cross-cultural skills to develop their chance of getting jobs and increasing their employability. The researchers have stated that with the help of an experiential cross-cultural exercise, students are being able to understand the future issues they may face in their jobs when they would connect with overseas members. This would help to develop proper virtual teamwork, which would help them to act successfully in global organizations. The exercise developed should be such that it would expose the students to other students of different countries through virtual aspect. This would exposes students to practical cross-cultural learning, virtual team management and thereby help in enterprise development. Researchers are of the opinion that such exercises are indeed enjoyable by the students and helps in building confidence in a range of skills. This also helps in preparing students for future employment. Researchers are of the opinion that such exercises are indeed of great help to students and prepare them for their future days. However, many of the researchers stated that use of virtual platforms might not be easier for the employees of older generations as they find themselves technologically backward in many cases. They need to re-learn the tactics to be successful in achieving cross-cultural skills (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Tabassi, A.A., Ramli, M. and Bakar, A.H.A., 2012. Effects of training and motivation practices on teamwork improvement and task efficiency: The case of construction firms.International Journal of Project Management,30(2), pp.213-224. Tabassi, Ramli and Bakar had released a paper in the year 2011where samples had been taken form construction sites with two main objectives. They wanted to study the relationship between the training and motivation practices with that of the improvement of the quality of work in teams. Secondly, they also wanted to study the relationship of both training and motivation practices with that of task efficiency. Survey questionnaires were used and data was analyzed with SPSS regression analysis. The ultimate results, which were obtained, showed that motivators highly strengthened the relationship of different training practices with teamwork activities and with task efficiency. Therefore, it can be stated that also companies of other construction sites in Iran can adopt similar training practices with teamwork activities, which would help in development of task efficiency. Doan, T.T.T., 2015. A Showcase of Teamwork Enhancement through Teambuilding Activities in Vietnam.Journal of Business Administration Research,4(2), p.40. Doan had published his paper in the month of October in 2015 where he wanted to show the important attributes that should be followed by the organization for proper team building. 201 participants were divided into six teams and two models were followed to test their success in team building. Ultimately, it was found that some of the criteria, which were proved important for team building, were effective team membership and development of effective relationship between the members of the team. Team problem solving is one of the criteria which is seen to be most important and team success depends on this factor to a large extent. Besides, team leadership and organizational environment also act as important attributes for developing proper teams and making sure that they have become successful in their goals. It is also stated by different researchers in their work that each of the factors are interrelated and hence they affect the workplace productivity (Goetsch and Davis 2014). The b etter the attributes and their management, the more successful will be teambuilding. Neves, J.S. and Nakhai, B., 2016. A model for developing and assessing students teamwork competencies.Research in Higher Education Journal,31, pp.1-21. Neves and Nakhai had published a paper in the year 2016 where they had given extremely important ideas about how to assess students in their teamwork competencies. The most of the important ten skills, which should be assessed in the team members, would be communication and facilitation skills as well as decision-making and conflict resolution skills. Planning, organization and coordination skills should be assessed. Interpersonal and collaborative skills and also leadership and performance monitoring skills should be also noted. All these skills should be assessed in certain important steps. The steps are beginning which is the goal and expectations setting, then comes the midpoint, which is the developmental coaching. The last is the end called the evaluation steps. All these steps would help in assessing and developing team building attributes in the students, which will help them in their future. Conclusion: The above papers on team and team works had helped in depicting of attributes, which help in successful teambuilding. All the attributes when maintained properly will help an individual to flourish as an effective team member and help in increasing team efficiency and team productivity. References: Ceschi, A., Dorofeeva, K. and Sartori, R., 2014. Studying teamwork and team climate by using a business simulation: how communication and innovation can improve group learning and decision-making performance.European Journal of Training and Development,38(3), pp.211-230. Cheruvelil, K.S., Soranno, P.A., Weathers, K.C., Hanson, P.C., Goring, S.J., Filstrup, C.T. and Read, E.K., 2014. Creating and maintaining high?performing collaborative research teams: the importance of diversity and interpersonal skills.Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,12(1), pp.31-38. de Jong, B.A., Dirks, K.T. and Gillespie, N., 2015, January. Trust and team performance: a meta-analysis of main effects, contingencies, and qualifiers. InAcademy of Management Proceedings(Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 14561). Academy of Management. Doan, T.T.T., 2015. A Showcase of Teamwork Enhancement through Teambuilding Activities in Vietnam.Journal of Business Administration Research,4(2), p.40. Donia, M.B., O'Neill, T.A. and Brutus, S., 2018. The longitudinal effects of peer feedback in the development and transfer of student teamwork skills.Learning and Individual Differences,61, pp.87-98. Duus, R. and Cooray, M., 2014. Together we innovate: Cross-cultural teamwork through virtual platforms.Journal of Marketing Education,36(3), pp.244-257. Fay, D., Shipton, H., West, M.A. and Patterson, M., 2015. Teamwork and organizational innovation: The moderating role of the HRM context.Creativity and Innovation Management,24(2), pp.261-277. Garca-Campayo, J., Puebla-Guedea, M., Herrera-Mercadal, P. and Daudn, E., 2016. Burnout Syndrome and Demotivation Among Health Care Personnel. Managing Stressful Situations: The Importance of Teamwork.Actas Dermo-Sifiliogrficas (English Edition),107(5), pp.400-406. Gibert, A., Tozer, W.C. and Westoby, M., 2017. Teamwork, soft skills, and research training.Trends in ecology evolution,32(2), pp.81-84. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Howard, L.W., Turban, D.B. and Hurley, S.K., 2016. Cooperating teams and competing reward strategies: Incentives for team performance and firm productivity.Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management,3(3). Inamizu, N., Fukuzawa, M., Fujimoto, T., Shintaku, J. and Suzuki, N., 2014. Group leaders and teamwork in the over-lean production system.Journal of Organizational Change Management,27(2), pp.188-205. Isik, M. and Aliyev, Y., 2015. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust i.International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science,4(1), p.133. Montgomery, A., Spnu, F., B?ban, A. and Panagopoulou, E., 2015. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: a multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork.Burnout research,2(2), pp.71-79. Neves, J.S. and Nakhai, B., 2016. A model for developing and assessing students teamwork competencies.Research in Higher Education Journal,31, pp.1-21. Orchard, C., 2016. The Advanced Practice Nurse and Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competence.Canadian Perspectives on Advanced Practice Nursing, p.254. Tabassi, A.A., Ramli, M. and Bakar, A.H.A., 2012. Effects of training and motivation practices on teamwork improvement and task efficiency: The case of construction firms.International Journal of Project Management,30(2), pp.213-224.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Pearl Harbor Essays (1513 words) - Attack On Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor: We didnt know, yet it was our fault In 1941, one of the largest American military defeats occurred. An entire naval fleet was destroyed, hundreds were killed, all before nine A.M. on a Sunday morning. The US did not have any knowledge of this attack, mostly because of their own ignorance, partially because of the military strategies of their Japanese opponents. The Japanese attack on the US naval base of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, was a classic case of It will not happen to me! Although the US suspected the Japanese actions, they were not ready because they believed an attack would never happen on American grounds. Through an examination of military history, tactics and eye witness descriptions, it will be proven that the US had no knowledge of the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, but had sufficient warnings from the Japanese and others that an attack was imminent. In the years before 1941, the war saw little American military action. After the collapse of France, American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt promised his county that no American troops would be sent to Europe to aid in the battle against Hitler and his powerful army. These promises caused Roosevelt to be criticized by his closest advisors for his doubt about declaring war . The Presidents defense to these accusations was he did not want to be looked down upon by the public. As well, he believed American intervention would cause a mortal blow to the Allies cause. In reality, the advisors, as well as Roosevelt, knew that Britain could not win the war without American armed intervention. Two oceans to the East, Japan was deep into a war of its own. Japanese forces were concentrated on the Chinese front to conquer and obtain. As a result of its unpopular declaration of war on China, Japans fuel supply from the US was eliminated. Consequently, the Japanese turned to Indonesia to continue the supply of fuel for its war efforts. Fuel talks broke down as the Dutch, who were in control of the Indonesian fuel supply and, under heavy influence from the US, would not supply Japan with fuel. Desperately needing fuel to continue the war, Japan first thought of attacking Indonesia, but feared US intervention. After some thought, Japanese leaders decided that an attack directly on the US would be more appropriate to bring the US to the fuel supplies negotiating table . The first acknowledgment that Japan was a war threat came on November 27, 1941 when Washington ordered a War Warning. The US feared a Japanese attack, not on America, but on the Philippines. American military leaders took little or no precautions upon the issue of warning. Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. General Walter C. Short of Pearl Harbor had done nothing to make the fleet or its defenses ready for Japanese attack . The commanding officers believed the warning to be no more than a possible threat of sabotage from the Japanese living on the island of Oahu. As a result, the officers ordered that all aircraft in the base be lined up at wing tip to be easily guarded. Defenses were on limited alert, with no long distance reconnaissance and no improvements on the limited anti-aircraft defenses. On board ships, only half of the anti-aircraft positions were stood at with the ammunition locked away . In every reference Ive seen and every Pearl Harbor survivor Ive ever talked to, each r eferred to the attack as a surprise, said PH1 Goodwin of Pearl Harbor in an Electronic-mail letter dated December 15, 1997. Mr. Goodwins comment is embarrassing at best, subsequently the American defense stance has been referred to as a shameful blunder . The lack of preparation for an attack demonstrated by the officers at Pearl Harbor portrayed the general attitude of ignorance in the American government. The United States of America is the strongest, most powerful country in the world. A country such as Japan, which does not even have the resources to survive a lengthy war, could not possibly attack them . The result of the attack would have been much less serious had the American officers fought stronger. The ignorance